Mars Express — Celebrating 10 Years

by Olivier Witasse, Daniel Scuka, and Emily Baldwin

Mars Express celebrates a decade of orbital observations of the Red Planet

Mars Express 10 year highlightsOn June 2, 2003, the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Mars Express orbiter was launched toward the red planet, entering into orbit just six months later. Though the accompanying Beagle 2 lander failed to establish radio contact from Mars’s surface, the orbiter is still swinging around Mars ten years on. Mars Express orbits roughly every 8 hours to collect data on Mars, its moons, and even the Sun.

Via Sky & Telescope

Mars Full Orbit Video 2.0: Kepler rocks the Red Planet

Just in time to celebrate the 10th anniversary of Mars Express: a new and enhanced Full Orbit Video delivered by the VMC camera - the Mars Webcam!

The version below is a special 'MEX birthday preview' – we'll post a somewhat extended version late next week (along with a more detailed explanation on how this video was produced), to coincide with the next expected VMC image set arriving from Mars.

What's the 'Full Orbit video', you ask? Access the original FO video produced in 2010 for the full description.

Thanks to the Mars Express Science & Operations teams for generating a fabulous, unique-in-our-Solar-System view of the Red Planet.

Happy Birthday, Mars Express!

Mars Express: 10 years mission highlights graphic

A super-nice graphic showing operations and science highlights from ESA’s Mars Express mission, which celebrated 10 years since launch on 2 June 2013.

The central image of Mars is composed of images taken by the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC), which has mapped around 95% of the planet’s surface. The images of Phobos and Deimos were also taken by the HRSC.

Access the original hi-res TIFF file in the ESA website

Mars Express mission highlights. Images of Mars, Phobos & Deimos: ESA/DLR/FU Berlin (G. Neukum)

Mars Express mission highlights. Images of Mars, Phobos & Deimos: ESA/DLR/FU Berlin (G. Neukum)

 

MEX lift off 10 years ago now!

Mars Express was launched on 2 June 2003 at 17:45 UT, 19:45 CEST, from Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan, via a Soyuz/Fregat rocket.

Thank you, @NASAhistory, for a thoughtful – and timely – birthday tweet!

 

Ten years of the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer (PFS)

Today's post – part of a series of reports marking the MEX 10th anniversary – was submitted by Marco Giuranna, the Principle Investigator for the PFS instrument. Marco works at the IAPS Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali (INAF), Rome - Ed.

It’s been ten years since Mars Express was launched on 2 June 2003. Ten years full of exciting moments, challenges, and beautiful memories. I could never forget that moment.

It was 10 January 2004. We were all insidem a small room at the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC), Darmstadt, Germany, in the very early morning hours. It was very cold outside, something like -10°C, or even colder. All the PIs for the various instruments were in that room, together with a couple members of each science team. I was among them, as a member of the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer (PFS) team. We were all waiting for the very first observation of Mars!

At that time, Vittorio Formisano was the PI for PFS. I was only a young student. I was responsible for the calibration of PFS; in other words, I had to transform the raw data sent by the instrument into quantitative measurements of Mars.

The room was silent, with only some whispering here and there. “Will the instrument switch on? Will it work properly?” I bet everyone was wondering the same questions.

All of a sudden: sounds of keyboards everywhere, people running around talking loudly… It took me a few seconds to realize what was going on: the first data were arriving!

We checked our data… everything was OK and PFS was working well. Everyone was so happy!

Everyone, except me.

Well, it's not that I wasn't happy. Of course I was, but an additional challenge was awaiting me: calibration.

Will the algorithms developed in the laboratory work also for Mars? I couldn’t answer that question – I was so nervous. But the moment has come. I got the data and loaded them into the software. All I had to do was to press the 'run' button… and hope for the best. Click.

“Mars is warmer than the Earth!” I shouted.

Single PFS measurement of Mars acquired during the very first set of observations around the equator, January 2004

Single PFS measurement of Mars acquired during the very first set of observations around the equator, January 2004. The signal around 1300 cm-1 gives a first estimation of the surface temperature: 285K.

 

Yes! The calibration was successful!

The first PFS observations of the Red Planet passed over the equator, and allowed a first estimation of the temperature of the surface there: around 285 K (~12 °C), much warmer than in Darmstadt!

I was so happy, I took a screenshot of the first calibrated measurements of PFS and sent it by email to all the Co-investigators around the world. I will never forget the expression of Vittorio. After all those years of hard work, his instrument was finally observing Mars!

Since then, PFS has collected almost two million measurements of Mars, allowing analyses of its atmospheric composition, circulation and climatology: ten years of top-quality science and exciting results. Who could imagine that a little feature observed in the PFS measurements would have led to one of the ten most important discoveries of the last years, and of Mars Express: methane on Mars!

First detection of Methane with PFS. Credit: ESA/IANF/IAPS

First detection of methane (CH4) with PFS (adapted from Formisano et al., 2004. Science 306, p1758).

PFS is still operating and will continue to monitor the Martian atmosphere for new, exciting results.

Happy Birthday, Mars Express!